|Effective range of anti-virus:||within 2000mm diameter|
|Effective range of instant anti-virus:||within 500mm diameter|
|UVC wavelength range:||＜278nm|
|Optical design:||High-tech unique optical design adopted|
|Product power:||16W / 32W / 44.8W / 89.6W|
|Operation mode:||visual operation, mode selection, child protection lock|
|Battery type:||36V power selectable (external power adapter)|
|Classification:||M, MS, H, HS|
|Efficiency of sterilization:|
|M type: working time between 0.075~60s, sterilization rate of 99.9%|
|MS type: working time between 0.01~30s, sterilization rate of 99.9%|
|H type: working time between 0.007~12s, sterilization rate of 99.99%|
|HS type: working time between 0.005~3s, sterilization rate of 100%|
What is UV sterilization for operating rooms?
In a nutshell…
UV sterilization robots utilize a specific UV light (UVC) to kill germs and pathogens that may remain on surfaces after the manual cleaning and disinfecting process.
Types of UV lights
There are two main types of UV light, which are then further separated into three sub categories.
UV Mercury is the more traditional UV light source that uses an electric arc inside an ionized gas chamber, which then emits photons after the atoms decay, producing a steady stream of light.
UV Xenon, on the other hand, releases pulses of energy (as opposed to a steady stream of light). After storing the electrical charge in a capacitator, the energy emits in millisecond pulses. This renders germs and pathogens unable to reproduce or repair, as the photons are more powerful.
There are three subcategories of ultraviolet light.
UV-A: Ultraviolet bandwidths in the 320-400 nanometer range
Has no germicidal effectiveness
UV-B: Ultraviolet bandwidths in the 280-320 nanometer range
UV-C: Ultraviolet C; Ultraviolet bandwidths in the 200 – 280 nanometer range
UVC has a high degree of germicidal effectiveness in inactivating bacteria, viruses, and fungi
Of the three, UV-C is the most powerful and effective when it comes to killing pathogens in the operating room.
Test after test has conclusively determined that xenon powered ultraviolet light is more effective and efficient at disinfecting the OR.
On average, a xenon UV robot will complete disinfection in around 10 times less the amount of time. For example, a mercury robot’s 60 minutes would be approximately 6 minutes for a xenon robot.
UV light is a reliable, well-studied antimicrobial technology. It works primarily by destroying the DNA inside bacteria, viruses and fungi. The high-energy portion of the UV spectrum called UV-C is most effective. UV-C light has been used for decades to disinfect industrial surfaces and sanitize drinking water. It is especially advantageous for use in hospitals because it kills the spore-forming bacteriumClostridium difficile, which is a major source of hospital-acquired infections.
Whole-room UV disinfection systems were first introduced to US hospitals around 2007. Since then, popularity has surged because they sanitize practically all of the surfaces in a room at once, with minimal labor and without hazardous chemicals. Even companies with roots in chemical disinfection have entered the whole-room UV disinfection market. For instance, Clorox recently formed a partnership with UV-device maker UVDI.
Shapes, sizes, and features of UV room disinfection devices vary. Most are the size of a small refrigerator or office water cooler. Some run for short periods of time while others run longer. Certain devices run until UV sensors placed in the room measure a particular UV dose. Some have mirrors that focus the UV light as the beam rotates around the room. Some are controlled digitally by touch-screens, while others are more simple analog devices. Many have motion sensors which shut the device off automatically if a person enters the room during treatment.
HOW ARE UV ROOM DISINFECTION DEVICES REGULATED?
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the primary regulator of chemical pesticides and pesticidal devices, though FDA and various US States also take part. EPA defines microorganisms as pests, disinfectants as pesticides, and disinfecting devices as pesticidal devices. Pesticidal devices are not subject to pre-market approval by EPA, though EPA does require data supporting efficacy to be held on file. Companies that make UV devices must register with the Agency, then report how many units are sold each year thereafter.
EPA does not generally review or approve data supporting performance of UV devices before they are sold, so the onus is on infection control practitioners and hospital buyers to ensure the machines are killing microorganisms as promised. Careful evaluation of manufacturer claims is necessary to ensure the UV devices deliver the real benefit: reduction of hospital-acquired infections.
HOW IS THE PERFORMANCE OF A UV DISINFECTION DEVICE DETERMINED?
The main ways UV device companies to substantiate performance are listed below:
Dose-response models, where UV-dose is measured, then used to estimate device effectiveness in hospitals.
Tests conducted in microbiology labs, where rate-of-kill is measured for various pathogens under tightly controlled conditions.
Environmental effectiveness tests, where hospital rooms are swabbed before and after UV treatment.
Clinical outcome studies, where reduction in infection rates resulting from UV device usage is calculated.
Not all effectiveness data is equally reliable. The remainder of the article describes each category in detail, as it relates to marketing and use of UV room disinfection devices.
MATHEMATICAL DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND UV DOSE-METERS (DOSIMETERS)
Generally speaking, UV disinfection is a function of UV dose. The correlation is "log-linear," meaning a line is formed when microbial populations are plotted on a logarithmic scale at various treatment intervals. For instance, if a study were to begin with one million microorganisms on a test surface, it might show 100,000, then 10,000, then 1,000 viable cells after being treated with UV light for 10, 20, and 30 minutes.
The straightforward relationship between UV dose and disinfection is a blessing and a curse: It enables smart UV companies to build accurate dose-response models for their machines, but fools less sophisticated UV companies into thinking that no laboratory testing is necessary so long as they have a way to measure or estimate UV dose.
UV dosimeters have found a variety of uses in UV room disinfection. Some companies use UV dosimeters to "prove" their device has disinfected a room. Other companies use UV dosimeters to tell the device when to turn off.
UV dosimeters are most accurate when used to measure narrow-spectrum UV light, the kind of UV light that mercury bulbs produce. Dosimeters are not useful to measure high-intensity broad-spectrum UV light, since the brief pulses of broad-spectrum light exceed the measurement capacity of most dosimeters.
Predictions based on UV dose measurements are only as accurate as the dose-response model used to make the prediction. The use of data from even slightly dissimilar studies (different device, different bulb, different surface type, etc) can render predictions unreliable. Therefore, extra scrutiny should be applied to claims of effectiveness based solely on dose-response modeling, especially if the source data that serves as the basis for the model was taken from previous, unrelated studies.
If you are considering the purchase of a UV room disinfection device based on a company's UV dosimetry data, please read more on mathematical dose-response models for antimicrobial efficacy.